Skip to content

Reference Library

General Translational Failure 

Akhtar A. The flaws and human harms of animal experimentation. Camb Q Healthc Ethics. 2015;24(4):407-419. 

Archibald K, Tsaioun K, Kenna JG, Pound P. Better science for safer medicines: the human imperative. J R Soc Med. 2018;111(12):433-438.  

Bailey J. Biomedical Research Must Change – But a Shift Toward Human-specific Research Methods Is Only Part of What Is Needed. Altern Lab Anim. 2021;49(3):69-72. 

Fosse V, Oldoni E, Bietrix F, Budillon A, et al. Recommendations for robust and reproducible preclinical research in personalised medicine. BMC Med. 2023;21:14.

Frangogiannis NG. Why animal model studies are lost in translation. J Cardiovasc Aging. 2022;2(2):22.   

Green SB. Can animal data translate to innovations necessary for a new era of patient-centred and individualised healthcare? Bias in preclinical animal research. BMC Med Ethics. 2015;16:53. 

Herrmann K, Jayne K. Animal Experimentation: Working Towards a Paradigm Change. Brill; 2019.  

Leenaars CHC, Kouwenaar C, Stafleu FR, et al. Animal to human translation: a systematic scoping review of reported concordance rates. J Transl Med. 2019;17(1):223. 

Lohse S. Scientific inertia in animal-based research in biomedicine. Stud Hist Philos Sci. 2021;89:41-51. 

Marshall LJ, Bailey J, Cassotta M, et al. Poor translatability of biomedical research using animals—a narrative review. Alternatives to Laboratory Animals. 2023;51(2):102-135.

Matthews RA. Medical progress depends on animal models – doesn’t it?. J R Soc Med. 2008;101(2):95-98. 

Pound P, Ebrahim S, Sandercock P, Bracken MB, Roberts I; Reviewing Animal Trials Systematically (RATS) Group. Where is the evidence that animal research benefits humans?. BMJ. 2004;328(7438):514-517. 

Pound P, Bracken MB. Is animal research sufficiently evidence based to be a cornerstone of biomedical research?. BMJ. 2014;348:g3387. 

Pound P, Ritskes-Hoitinga M. Is it possible to overcome issues of external validity in preclinical animal research? Why most animal models are bound to fail. J Transl Med. 2018;16(1):304. 

Pound P. Are Animal Models Needed to Discover, Develop and Test Pharmaceutical Drugs for Humans in the 21st Century?. Animals (Basel). 2020;10(12):2455. 

Shanks N, Greek R, Greek J. Are animal models predictive for humans?. Philos Ethics Humanit Med. 2009;4:2 

Singh VP, Pratap K, Sinha J, Desiraju K, Bahal D, Kukreti R. Critical evaluation of challenges and future use of animals in experimentation for biomedical research. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2016;29(4):551-561. 

van Meer PJ, Kooijman M, Gispen-de Wied CC, Moors EH, Schellekens H. The ability of animal studies to detect serious post marketing adverse events is limited. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2012;64(3):345-349. 

Van Norman GA. Limitations of Animal Studies for Predicting Toxicity in Clinical Trials: Is it Time to Rethink Our Current Approach?. JACC Basic Transl Sci. 2019;4(7):845-854. 

Wong CH, Siah KW, Lo AW. Estimation of clinical trial success rates and related parameters. Biostatistics. 2019;20(2):273-286.  

Yang RR. A patient advocating for transparent science in rare disease research. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2023;18(1):14. 

Disease-Specific Translational Failure


Field M, Kersbergen I. Are animal models of addiction useful?. Addiction. 2020;115(1):6-12.


Atkins JT, George GC, Hess K, et al. Pre-clinical animal models are poor predictors of human toxicities in phase 1 oncology clinical trials. Br J Cancer. 2020;123(10):1496-1501. 

Mak IW, Evaniew N, Ghert M. Lost in translation: animal models and clinical trials in cancer treatment. Am J Transl Res. 2014;6(2):114-118. 

Cardiovascular Disease 

Chandrasekera PC, Pippin JJ. The human subject: an integrative animal model for 21(st) century heart failure research. Am J Transl Res. 2015;7(9):1636-1647.   


Chandrasekera PC, Pippin JJ. Of rodents and men: species-specific glucose regulation and type 2 diabetes research. ALTEX. 2014;31(2):157-176.   

Wang B, Chandrasekera PC, Pippin JJ. Leptin- and leptin receptor-deficient rodent models: relevance for human type 2 diabetes. Curr Diabetes Rev. 2014;10(2):131-145. 


Greek R, Pound P. Animal studies and HIV research. BMJ. 2002;324(7331):236-237. 

Neurodegenerative Diseases 

Cavanaugh SE, Pippin JJ, Barnard ND. Animal models of Alzheimer disease: historical pitfalls and a path forward. ALTEX. 2014;31(3):279-302. 

Pistollato F, Cavanaugh SE, Chandrasekera PC. A Human-Based Integrated Framework for Alzheimer’s Disease Research. J Alzheimers Dis. 2015;47(4):857-868. 

Pistollato F, Ohayon EL, Lam A, et al. Alzheimer disease research in the 21st century: past and current failures, new perspectives and funding priorities. Oncotarget. 2016;7(26):38999-39016. 

Potashkin JA, Blume SR, Runkle NK. Limitations of animal models of Parkinson’s disease. Parkinsons Dis. 2010;2011:658083. 

Zhang TD, Kolbe SC, Beauchamp LC, Woodbridge EK, Finkelstein DI, Burrows EL. How Well Do Rodent Models of Parkinson’s Disease Recapitulate Early Non-Motor Phenotypes? A Systematic Review. Biomedicines. 2022;10(12):3026. 

Neuropsychiatric Disease 

Carvalho C, Peste F, Marques TA, Knight A, Vicente LM. The Contribution of Rat Studies to Current Knowledge of Major Depressive Disorder: Results From Citation Analysis. Front Psychol. 2020;11:1486.  

Carvalho C, Varela SAM, Bastos LF, et al. The Relevance of In Silico, In Vitro and Non-human Primate Based Approaches to Clinical Research on Major Depressive Disorder. Altern Lab Anim. 2019;47(3-4):128-139. 

Carvalho C, Varela SAM, Marques TA, Knight A, Vicente L. Are in vitro and in silico approaches used appropriately for animal-based major depressive disorder research?. PLoS One. 2020;15(6):e0233954. 

Carvalho C, Vieira Crespo M, Ferreira Bastos L, Knight A, Vicente L. Contribution of animal models to contemporary understanding of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. ALTEX. 2016;33(3):243-249. 

Neuhaus CP. Threats to Benefits: Assessing Knowledge Production in Nonhuman Models of Human Neuropsychiatric Disorders. Hastings Cent Rep. 2022;52 Suppl 2(Suppl 2):S34-S40. 

Stanford SC. Confusing preclinical (predictive) drug screens with animal ‘models’ of psychiatric disorders, or ‘disorder-like’ behaviour, is undermining confidence in behavioural neuroscience. J Psychopharmacol. 2017;31(6):641-643. 

Stanford SC. Some Reasons Why Preclinical Studies of Psychiatric Disorders Fail to Translate: What Can Be Rescued from the Misunderstanding and Misuse of Animal ‘Models’?. Altern Lab Anim. 2020;48(3):106-115. 


Buras JA, Holzmann B, Sitkovsky M. Animal models of sepsis: Setting the stage. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2005;4:854-865. 

Esmon CT. Why do animal models (sometimes) fail to mimic human sepsis. Crit Care Med. 2004;32(5):S219-S222.  

Fink MP. Animal models of sepsis. Virulence. 2014;5(1):143-153.  

Kamisoglu K, Haimovich B, Calvano SE, et al. Human metabolic response to systemic inflammation: assessment of the concordance between experimental endotoxemia and clinical cases of sepsis/SIRS. Crit Care. 2015;19(71):1-10. 

Laudanski K, Stentz M, DiMeglio M, Furey W, Steinberg T, Patel A. Potential pitfalls of the humanized mice in modeling sepsis. Int J Inflamm. 2018;6563454.  

Lilley E, Armstrong R, Clark N, et al. Refinement of animal models of sepsis and septic shock. Shock. 2015;43(4):304- 316. 

Osuchowski MF, Ayala A, Bahrami S, et al. Minimum quality threshold in pre-clinical sepsis studies (Mqtipss): An international expert consensus initiative for improvement of animal modeling in sepsis. Shock. 2018;50(4):377-380.  

Raven K. Rodent models of sepsis found shockingly lacking. Nat Med. 2012;18(7):998. 

Riedemann NC, Gui RF, Ward PA. The enigma of sepsis. J Clin Invest. 2003;112: 460-467. 

Rittirsch D, Hoesel LM, Ward PA. The disconnect between animal models of sepsis and human sepsis. J Leukoc Biol. 2007;81:137-143. 

Seok J, Warren HS, Cuenca AG, et al. Genomic responses in mouse models poorly mimic human inflammatory diseases. PNAS. 2013;110(9):3507-3512. 

Verma S. Laboratory Animal Models to Mimic Human Sepsis: A Review. RRJZS. 2016;4(2):34-39. 

Ward PA. New approaches to the study of sepsis. EMBO Mol Med. 2012;4:1234-1243. 


Dhir N, Medhi B, Prakash A, Goyal MK, Modi M, Mohindra S. Pre-clinical to Clinical Translational Failures and Current Status of Clinical Trials in Stroke Therapy: A Brief Review. Curr Neuropharmacol. 2020;18(7):596-612. 

Roth S, Liesz A. Stroke research at the crossroads – where are we heading?. Swiss Med Wkly. 2016;146:w14329.



Budolfson M, Fischer B, and Scovronick N. Animal welfare: methods to improve policy and practice. Science. 2023;381(6653):32-34.

Conroy G. How wild monkeys “laundered” for science could undermine research. Nature. 2023;623:672-673.

Coulter K. Defending Animals: Finding Hope on the Front Lines of Animal Protection.Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 2023.

Gamalo LE, Ilham K, Jones-Engel L, et al. Removal from the wild endangers the once widespread long-tailed macaque. American Journal of Primatology. 2023;86(3):e23547.

Henning J, Nielsen T, Fernandez E, and Hazel S. Cats just want to have fun: associations between play and welfare in domestic cats. Animal Welfare. 2023;32:e9.

Hilton G, Bhuller Y, Doe JE, et al. A new paradigm for regulatory sciences. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2023;145:105524.

Jaric I, Voelkl B, Amrein I, et al. Using mice from different breeding sites fails to improve replicability of results from single-laboratory studies. Lab Anim.2024;53:18-22.

Kramer K. When is something an alternative? A general account applied to animal-free alternatives to animal research. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics. 2024;33(1):89-101.

Lahvis G. What can caged lab monkeys tell us about free human beings? Published July 30, 2023. Accessed March 11, 2024.

Mason GJ. Animal welfare research is fascinating, ethical, and useful—but how can it be more rigorous? BMC Biol.2023;21:302.

Meijboom FLB, Kostrzewa E, Leenaars CHC. Joining forces: the need to combine science and ethics to address problems of validity and translation in neuropsychiatry research using animal models. Philos Ethics Humanit Med. 2020;15(1):1. 

Miller RJ. The Rise and Fall of Animal Experimentation: Empathy, Science, and the Future of Research. New York: Oxford University Press, 2023.

Reardon S. Octopuses used in research could receive same protections as monkeys. Nature. Published September 15, 2023. Accessed March 11, 2024.

Robinson LM and Weiss A, eds. Nonhuman Primate Welfare: From History, Science, and Ethics to Practice. Cham: Springer, 2023.

Parker MO and McElligott AG. Ethical evolutions: navigating the future of animal behaviour and welfare research. Research Ethics. 2023;19(4):369-372.

Pound P. Release the beast. The Medicine Maker. Published January 16, 2024. Accessed March 11, 2024.

van Beuningen N, Alkema S, Hijlkema N, et al. The 3ranker: an AI-based algorithm for finding non-animal alternative methods. Alternatives to Laboratory Animals. 2023;51(6):376-386.

Williams G and Thomas LA. We won’t always have to use animals for medical research. Here’s what we can do instead. The Conversation. Published August 30, 2023. Accessed March 11, 2024.


Bayne K, Dexter S, Suomi S. A preliminary survey of the incidence of abnormal behavior in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) relative to housing condition. Lab Animal. 1992;21:38–46. 

Cait J, Cait A, Scott RW, Winder CB, Mason GJ. Conventional laboratory housing increases morbidity and mortality in research rodents: results of a meta-analysis. BMC Biol. 2022;20(1):15. 

Charbonneau JA, Amaral DG, Bliss-Moreau E. Social housing status impacts rhesus monkeys’ affective responding in classic threat processing tasks. Sci Rep. 2022;12(1):4140. 

DiVincenti L Jr, Wyatt JD. Pair housing of macaques in research facilities: a science-based review of benefits and risks. J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci. 2011;50(6):856-863. 

Guerrero-Martin SM, Rubin LH, McGee KM, et al. Psychosocial Stress Alters the Immune Response and Results in Higher Viral Load During Acute Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in a Pigtailed Macaque Model of Human Immunodeficiency Virus. J Infect Dis. 2021;224(12):2113-2121. 

Hannibal DL, Bliss-Moreau E, Vandeleest J, McCowan B, Capitanio J. Laboratory rhesus macaque social housing and social changes: Implications for research. Am J Primatol. 2017;79(1):1-14. 

Jaric I, Voelkl B, Clerc M, et al. The rearing environment persistently modulates mouse phenotypes from the molecular to the behavioural level. PLoS Biol. 2022;20(10):e3001837. 

Harlow HF, Dodsworth RO, Harlow MK. Total social isolation in monkeys. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1965 Jul;54(1):90-7. 

Whittaker AL, Howarth GS, Hickman DL. Effects of space allocation and housing density on measures of wellbeing in laboratory mice: a review. Lab Anim. 2012;46(1):3-13. 

Lutz C, Well A, Novak M. Stereotypic and self-injurious behavior in rhesus macaques: a survey and retrospective analysis of environment and early experience. Am J Primatol. 2003 May;60(1):1-15.  

Schapiro SJ, Bloomsmith MA, Porter LM, Suarez S. Enrichment effects on rhesus monkeys successively housed singly, in pairs, and in groups. Applied Animal Behaviour Science. 1996;48(3-4):159-171. 

 Suomi SJ, Harlow HF, Kimball SD. Behavioral effects of prolonged partial social isolation in the rhesus monkey. Psychol Rep. 1971 Dec;29(3):1171-7. 


Bliss-Moreau E, Amara RR, Buffalo EA, Colman RJ, Embers ME, Morrison JH, Quillen EE, Sacha JB, Roberts CT; National Primate Research Center Consortium Rigor and Reproducibility Working Group. Improving rigor and reproducibility in nonhuman primate research. Am J Primatol. 2021 Dec;83(12):e23331. 

Baker M. 1,500 scientists lift the lid on reproducibility. Nature. 2016;533(7604):452-454. 

Collins FS, Tabak LA. Policy: NIH plans to enhance reproducibility. Nature. 2014;505(7485):612-613. 

Sentience and Emotions

Rutz C, Bronstein M, Rasin A, et al. Using machine learning to decode animal communication. Science. 2023;381(6654):152-155.


Cichoń M, Chadzińska M, Ksiazek A, Konarzewski M. Delayed effects of cold stress on immune response in laboratory mice. Proc Biol Sci. 2002;269(1499):1493-1497. 

David JM, Knowles S, Lamkin DM, Stout DB. Individually ventilated cages impose cold stress on laboratory mice: a source of systemic experimental variability. J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci. 2013;52(6):738-744. 

Fischer AW, Cannon B, Nedergaard J. Optimal housing temperatures for mice to mimic the thermal environment of humans: An experimental study. Mol Metab. 2018;7:161-170. 

Ganeshan K, Chawla A. Warming the mouse to model human diseases. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2017;13(8):458-465. 

Hankenson FC, Marx JO, Gordon CJ, David JM. Effects of Rodent Thermoregulation on Animal Models in the Research Environment. Comp Med. 2018;68(6):425-438.   

Maloney SK, Fuller A, Mitchell D, Gordon C, Overton JM. Translating animal model research: does it matter that our rodents are cold?. Physiology (Bethesda). 2014;29(6):413-420. 

Seeley RJ, MacDougald OA. Mice as experimental models for human physiology: when several degrees in housing temperature matter. Nat Metab. 2021;3(4):443-445. 


Aulehner K, Leenaars C, Buchecker V, et al. Grimace scale, burrowing, and nest building for the assessment of post-surgical pain in mice and rats-A systematic review. Front Vet Sci. 2022;9:930005.   

Carbone L, Austin J. Pain and Laboratory Animals: Publication Practices for Better Data Reproducibility and Better Animal Welfare. PLoS One. 2016;11(5):e0155001.  

Flecknell PA. The relief of pain in laboratory animals. Lab Anim. 1984;18(2):147-160. 

Foley PL, Kendall LV, Turner PV. Clinical Management of Pain in Rodents. Comp Med. 2019;69(6):468-489. 

Herrmann K, Flecknell P. Retrospective review of anesthetic and analgesic regimens used in animal research proposals. ALTEX. 2019;36(1):65-80.  

Jirkof P. Side effects of pain and analgesia in animal experimentation. Lab Anim (NY). 2017;46(4):123-128.   

King H, Reiber M, Philippi V, et al. Anesthesia and analgesia for experimental craniotomy in mice and rats: a systematic scoping review comparing the years 2009 and 2019. Front Neurosci. 2023;17:1143109.

Paterson EA, Turner PV. Challenges with Assessing and Treating Pain in Research Primates: A Focused Survey and Literature Review. Animals (Basel). 2022;12(17):2304.  

Turner PV, Pang DS, Lofgren JL. A Review of Pain Assessment Methods in Laboratory Rodents. Comp Med. 2019;69(6):451-467. 

Peer Review

Langfeldt L, Reymert I, and Svartefoss SM. Distrust in grant peer review—reasons and remedies. Science and Public Policy. 2024;51(1):28-41.

Jeffers MS, MacLellan A, Avey MT, et al. A call to implement preclinical study registration in animal ethics review. PLOS Biology. 2023;21(10): e3002293.

Krebs CA, Camp C, Constantino H, et al. Author guide for addressing animal methods bias in publishing. Advanced Science. Published August 30, 2023. Accessed March 11, 2024.

Krebs CE, Camp C, Constantino H, et al. Proceedings of a workshop to address animal methods bias in scientific publishing. ALTEX – Alternatives to animal experimentation, 2023;40(4):677-688.

Van Noorden R. More than 10,000 research papers were retracted in 2023—a new record. Nature. 2023; 624:479-481.

Volsche S, Root-Gutteridge H, Korzeniowska AT, Horowitz A. Centering individual animals to improve research and citation practices. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc. Published October 25, 2022. Accessed March 11, 2024.



Arnason G. The Emergence and Development of Animal Research Ethics: A Review with a Focus on Nonhuman Primates. Sci Eng Ethics. 2020;26(4):2277-2293. 

Brønstad A, Newcomer CE, Decelle T, Everitt JI, Guillen J, Laber K. Current concepts of Harm-Benefit Analysis of Animal Experiments – Report from the AALAS-FELASA Working Group on Harm-Benefit Analysis – Part 1. Lab Anim. 2016;50(1 Suppl):1-20. 

Ferdowsian H, Johnson LSM, Johnson J, Fenton A, Shriver A, Gluck J. A Belmont Report for Animals?. [Published correction appears in Camb Q Healthc Ethics. 2020 Jan;29(1):163]. Camb Q Healthc Ethics. 2020;29(1):19-37. 

Greek R, Greek J. Is the use of sentient animals in basic research justifiable?. Philos Ethics Humanit Med. 2010;5:14. 

Gluck JP, Bell J. Ethical issues in the use of animals in biomedical and psychopharmocological research. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2003;171(1):6-12. 

Laber K, Newcomer CE, Decelle T, Everitt JI, Guillen J, Brønstad A. Recommendations for Addressing Harm-Benefit Analysis and Implementation in Ethical Evaluation – Report from the AALAS-FELASA Working Group on Harm-Benefit Analysis – Part 2. Lab Anim. 2016;50(1 Suppl):21-42. 

Landi MS, Shriver AJ, Mueller A. Consideration and checkboxes: incorporating ethics and science into the 3Rs. J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci. 2015;54(2):224-230. 

Landi M, Everitt J, Berridge B. Bioethical, Reproducibility, and Translational Challenges of Animal Models. ILAR J. 2021;62(1-2):60-65. 

Ohl F, Meijboom F. Ethical issues associated with the use of animal experimentation in behavioral neuroscience research. Curr Top Behav Neurosci. 2015;19:3-15. 

Padrell M, Llorente M, Amici F. Invasive Research on Non-Human Primates-Time to Turn the Page. Animals (Basel). 2021;11(10):2999. 

Shriver AJ, John TM. Neuroethics and Animals: Report and Recommendations From the University of Pennsylvania Animal Research Neuroethics Workshop. ILAR J. 2021;60(3):424-433.  

Vieira de Castro AC, Olsson IA. Does the goal justify the methods? Harm and benefit in neuroscience research using animals. Curr Top Behav Neurosci. 2015;19:47-78. 

IACUC Composition/Expertise/Responsibilities 

Brown MJ, Symonowicz C, Medina LV, et al. Culture of Care: Organizational Responsibilities. In: Weichbrod RH, Thompson GA, Norton JN, eds. Management of Animal Care and Use Programs in Research, Education, and Testing. 2nd ed. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press/Taylor & Francis; 2018.11-26. 

Budda ML, Pritt SL. Evaluating IACUCs: Previous Research and Future Directions. J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci. 2020;59(6):656-664. 

Carbone L. Ethical and IACUC. Considerations Regarding Analgesia and Pain Management in Laboratory Rodents. Comp Med. 2019;69(6):443-450.   

Davis JN, Greer W, Banks RE, Philips BH, Marx JO. Postapproval Monitoring Practices at Biomedical Research Facilities. J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci. 2019;58(4):469-474. 

Hansen LA, Goodman JR, Chandna A. Analysis of Animal Research Ethics Committee Membership at American Institutions. Animals (Basel). 2012;2(1):68-75. 

Hansen LA. Institution animal care and use committees need greater ethical diversity. J Med Ethics. 2013;39(3):188-190. 

Mohan S, Barbee RW, Silk SB. Contribution of the Breadth and Depth of IACUC Membership to Experimental Design as a Factor in Research Reproducibility. J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci. 2018;57(2):104-109. 

Pritt SL, Hammer RE. The Interplay of Ethics, Animal Welfare, and IACUC Oversight on the Reproducibility of Animal Studies. Comp Med. 2017;67(2):101-105. 

Tardif SD, Coleman K, Hobbs TR, Lutz C. IACUC review of nonhuman primate research. ILAR J. 2013;54(2):234-245.   

Waltz M, Fisher JA, Walker RL. Mission. Creep or Mission Lapse? Scientific Review in Research Oversight.  AJOB Empir Bioeth. 2022;1-12. 

Systematic Reviews 

Cassidy LC, Leenaars CHC, Rincon AV, Pfefferle D. Comprehensive search filters for retrieving publications on nonhuman primates for literature reviews (filterNHP). Am J Primatol. 2021;83(7):e23287. 

de Vries RB, Wever KE, Avey MT, Stephens ML, Sena ES, Leenaars M. The usefulness of systematic reviews of animal experiments for the design of preclinical and clinical studies. ILAR J. 2014;55(3):427-437. 

de Vries RB, Hooijmans CR, Langendam MW, van Luijk J, Leenaars M, Ritskes-Hoitinga M, Wever KE. A protocol format for the preparation, registration and publication of systematic reviews of animal intervention studies. EBM. 2015;2(1):1-9.  

Gurusamy KS, Moher D, Loizidou M, et al. Clinical relevance assessment of animal preclinical research (RAA) tool: development and explanation. PeerJ. 2021;9:e10673. 

Hoffmann S, de Vries RBM, Stephens ML, et al. A primer on systematic reviews in toxicology. Arch Toxicol. 2017;91(7):2551-2575. 

Hooijmans CR, Leenaars M, Ritskes-Hoitinga M. A gold standard publication checklist to improve the quality of animal studies, to fully integrate the Three Rs, and to make systematic reviews more feasible. Altern Lab Anim. 2010;38(2):167-182. 

Hooijmans CR, Tillema A, Leenaars M, Ritskes-Hoitinga M. Enhancing search efficiency by means of a search filter for finding all studies on animal experimentation in PubMed. Lab Anim. 2010;44(3):170-175. 

Hooijmans CR, Ritskes-Hoitinga M. Progress in using systematic reviews of animal studies to improve translational research. PLoS Med. 2013;10(7):e1001482. 

Hooijmans CR, IntHout J, Ritskes-Hoitinga M, Rovers MM. Meta-analyses of animal studies: an introduction of a valuable instrument to further improve healthcare. ILAR J. 2014;55(3):418-426. 

Hooijmans CR, Rovers MM, de Vries RB, Leenaars M, Ritskes-Hoitinga M, Langendam MW. SYRCLE’s risk of bias tool for animal studies. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2014;14:43. 

Hooijmans CR, Wever KE, Ritskes-Hoitinga M, Scheffer GJ. The usefulness of systematic reviews of animal studies: shooting the messenger. Paediatr Anaesth. 2016;26(8):852-853. 

Hooijmans CR, de Vries RBM, Ritskes-Hoitinga M, et al. Facilitating healthcare decisions by assessing the certainty in the evidence from preclinical animal studies. PLoS One. 2018;13(1):e0187271. 

Hooijmans CR, Donders R, Magnuson K, et al. Assessment of key characteristics, methodology, and effect size measures used in meta-analysis of human-health-related animal studies. Res Synth Methods. 2022;13(6):790-806. 

Langendam MW, Magnuson K, Williams AR, et al. Developing a database of systematic reviews of animal studies. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2021;123:104940. Database available at  

Leenaars M, Hooijmans CR, van Veggel N, et al. A step-by-step guide to systematically identify all relevant animal studies. Lab Anim. 2012;46(1):24-31. 

Leenaars M, van der Meulen M, van Oort E, Scholten R. Synthesis of evidence: Working together on systematic reviews of animal studies. ALTEX. 2015;32(2):149-150. 

Leenaars CHC, Kouwenaar C, Stafleu FR, et al. Animal to human translation: a systematic scoping review of reported concordance rates. J Transl Med. 2019;17(1):223. 

Leenaars C, Tsaioun K, Stafleu F, et al. Reviewing the animal literature: how to describe and choose between different types of literature reviews. Lab Anim. 2021;55(2):129-141. 

Menon JML, Ritskes-Hoitinga M, Pound P, van Oort E. The impact of conducting preclinical systematic reviews on researchers and their research: A mixed method case study. PLoS One. 2021;16(12):e0260619. 

Pound P, Ritskes-Hoitinga M. Can prospective systematic reviews of animal studies improve clinical translation?. J Transl Med. 2020;18(1):15. 

Ritskes-Hoitinga M, Leenaars M, Avey M, Rovers M, Scholten R. Systematic reviews of preclinical animal studies can make significant contributions to health care and more transparent translational medicine. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;(3):ED000078. 

Ritskes-Hoitinga M, van Luijk J. How Can Systematic Reviews Teach Us More about the Implementation of the 3Rs and Animal Welfare?. Animals (Basel). 2019;9(12):1163. 

Ritskes-Hoitinga M, Pound P. The role of systematic reviews in identifying the limitations of preclinical animal research, 2000 – 2022. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation. 2022. 

Rosso M, Wirz R, Loretan AV, et al. Reliability of common mouse behavioural tests of anxiety: A systematic review and meta-analysis on the effects of anxiolytics. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2022;143:104928

Uman LS. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses. J Can Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2011;20(1):57-59.  

van der Mierden S, Tsaioun K, Bleich A, Leenaars CHC. Software tools for literature screening in systematic reviews in biomedical research. ALTEX. 2019;36(3):508-517. 

van der Mierden S, Spineli LM, Talbot SR, et al. Extracting data from graphs: A case-study on animal research with implications for meta-analyses. Res Synth Methods. 2021;12(6):701-710. 

van der Mierden S, Hooijmans CR, Tillema AH, Rehn S, Bleich A, Leenaars CH. Laboratory animals search filter for different literature databases: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and PsycINFO. Lab Anim. 2022;56(3):279-286. 

van Luijk J, Leenaars M, Hooijmans C, Wever K, de Vries R, Ritskes-Hoitinga M. Towards evidence-based translational research: the pros and cons of conducting systematic reviews of animal studies. ALTEX. 2013;30(2):256-257. 

van Luijk J, Bakker B, Rovers MM, Ritskes-Hoitinga M, de Vries RB, Leenaars M. Systematic reviews of animal studies; missing link in translational research?. PLoS One. 2014;9(3):e89981. 

Whaley P, Aiassa E, Beausoleil C, et al. Recommendations for the conduct of systematic reviews in toxicology and environmental health research (COSTER). Environ Int. 2020;143:105926.